Commercial Logging and HIV Epidemic | CDC EID

From CDC website: "...We found a high seroprevalence of HIV among young women in a commercial logging area in Cameroon. The vulnerability of these young women could be related to commercial logging and the social and economic networks it induces. The environmental changes related to this industry in Equatorial Africa may facilitate HIV dissemination...More than 20 years after the beginning of the HIV epidemic, the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) stated that the epidemic was now taking hold in many African countries (1). An estimated 25.0–28.2 million persons are already infected in sub-Saharan Africa, accounting for 70% of all infections worldwide, and Africans represent 10% of the world population. AIDS is now the leading cause of death in Africa (2.2–2.4 million deaths in 2003) (2). UNAIDS particularly underlined the rapidly rising prevalence in Cameroon, a central African country (4.7% in 1996, 11.8% in 2001) (1,3). As in many countries, these data come from sentinel surveillance of women attending urban and semi-urban antenatal clinics...Data from rural areas are scarce, and the dynamics of HIV infection are poorly documented. Travel has been linked to an increased risk among rural populations (4). The recent environmental changes related to commercial logging in Equatorial Africa could potentially facilitate HIV dissemination. Commercial logging has led to road construction in remote forested areas, human migration (especially of single men), and develop social and economic networks (including commercial sex work) that support this industry (5). In Cameroon, commercial logging has been growing for at least 4 decades. We have previously shown that these environmental changes might represent a risk to human health through exposure to simian immunodeficiency viruses (6). We investigated the seroprevalence of HIV, the nature of circulating HIV genetic variants, and factors associated with HIV infection in a logging area of southern Cameroon..."


Indigenous health research abstracts

From the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine website. Papers presented focus on current issues in Indigenous peoples from around the world. Although indigenous peoples across the globe represent the most vulnerable of all populations, indigenous peoples in Africa remain "the most vulnerable of the most vulnerable" with the health and welfare of women and children a question of critical concern. Indigenous peoples in Africa are invisible to public health institutions, NGOs and researchers such that institutional indifference to this acutely vulnerable populations should be understood as part of the problem.


Indigenous Health: London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine

Excerpt from the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine: "...LSHTM staff and students work on the health and rights of indigenous peoples throughout the world, and have worked with NGO Health Unlimited in raising the profile of the health and human rights of indigenous peoples. With supportinternationally, LSHTM and Health Unlimited have been collaborating in efforts to increase knowledge and understanding of indigenous people's health in developing countries.

The Lancet series has been written in the first year of the Second Decade of the World’s Indigenous Peoples, initiated after a First Decade which – even according to the High Commissioner for Human Rights, achieved little. The High Commissioner noted in an evaluation of the Decade that its main objective, the adoption of a declaration of rights for Indigenous peoples, had not been achieved and that more needed to be done by the Member States and the international community to improve the rights of Indigenous peoples.
The LSHTM team, which is contributing a number of research papers and coordinated the series, is echoing the calls made by the Permanent Forum for more research and action to get Indigenous peoples’ health included into the MDGs, and for the issue to be placed high on the agenda at the UN’s MDG forthcoming conference in September.

Background: In a 2002 multilingual joint HU/LSHTM seminar at LSHTM we discussed case studies on indigenous health in India, Venezuela and Brazil, Peru and Cambodia. In a presentation from the World Health Organisation attention was drawn both to the very difficult health issues confronting indigenous peoples and the problems of securing action from governments and the international community to address them...In 2003: Utz´ Wach´il - Health and Wellbeing Among Indigenous People...An outcome of the seminar was an agreement that something should be done to draw wider attention to the issues which had been raised. Rather than present research results or descriptions of programmes, we decided to let indigenous peoples speak for themselves. The result was a pamphlet entitled Utz´ Wach´il: Health and well being among indigenous people published to mark the International Day of Indigenous Peoples on 9 August 2003. The pamphlet was a unique effort to bring together the voices of indigenous peoples from countries in Africa, Asia and Latin America to describe their own concept of health and well-being. Produced on a shoestring budget with voluntary support of LSHTM and HU staff and the collaboration of Health Unlimited's field staff, the booklet has been widely circulated and succeeded in bringing the attention of donors and academics to the health problems facing some of the poorest and most marginalized people in the world. A two day conference was held in 2004 to mark the end of the International Decade of Indigenous People, providing a unique opportunity for representatives of indigenous organisations and researchers engaged in work on indigenous health to discuss the issues. They shared their work with an audience of academics and professionals working in indigenous health including a number of representatives of indigenous people's organisations, and set out the prospects for the future. The workshop and meeting at the end of the conference have provided a sharper set of recommendations which build on the experience of indigenous people, the experience of those who have worked with indigenous communities, and the researchers who have analysed the underlying process at work.



Pygmy populations seronegative for Marburg virus

Excerpt from CDC website: "...A serosurvey was conducted in Durba, a mining village near Watsa, northeastern Democratic Republic of Congo, the epicenter of Marburg hemorrhagic fever (MHF) outbreaks in 1994 and 1998–2000 (1–3). In this survey, Bausch et al. found a prevalence of anti-Marburg immunoglobulin (Ig) G of 0.35% (2 of 565) in the nonmining population, but a prevalence of 3.75% (13 of 347) in miners. Mine work was an independent risk factor for seropositivity for anti-Marburg IgG (1). Given that widespread secondary transmission could not be documented in the seropositive miners, primary transmission from the unknown reservoir likely occurred in the mines where rodent, shrew, bat, and other fauna were abundant. No evidence of Marburg virus (MBGV) infection was found in samples from small mammals, amphibians, and arthropods collected in and around Gorumbwa mine (R. Swanepoel, pers. comm.); the origin of the MHF outbreak remained unknown...We hypothesized that the MBGV reservoir's habitat might not be limited to gold mines around Durba, but may exist in caves or forests in the wider Watsa area. As hunter-gatherers, pygmies enter caves for shelter and are in frequent contact with wild animals and body fluids of butchered game. Earlier studies found that pygmies were seropositive for filoviruses significantly more often than subsistence farmers (for filoviruses [4,5], for Ebola but not Marburg [6]). We conducted a seroprevalence study to verify whether pygmies living in the Watsa area constitute another population at risk for primary transmission of MBGV..."



ROC: HIV/AIDS - Mapping resources

2003 Report "Ecumenical HIV/AIDS Initiative in Africa for an AIDS competent church" provides epidemiological data, identifies various religious organizations in ROC involved in HIV/AIDS programs and identifies barriers and approaches to the delivery of HIV/AIDS services through ecumenical networks in Congo/Brazzaville.


DRC: Sexual violence, lack of healthcare spreads HIV/AIDS among pygmies

Excerpt from IRIN News September 2006: "...Over a million Congolese are HIV-positive, according to the United Nation's Children's Fund (Unicef), but there is next to no data on the country's isolated pygmy communities. The minority rights group, Refugees International, estimated in 2000 that there were about 80,000 pygmies, also known as the Batwa...The pygmies of South Kivu Province say there was little, if any, HIV/AIDS in their community before the war. HIV prevalence is still believed to be lower among them than in the wider Congolese society, but their poverty, social isolation and lack of healthcare services means little help is available for those who contract the virus..."


Hahn's latest SIV sequences from Cameroonian chimps: an alternative interpretation

Excerpt from "The Hollywooding of Science":

"...The available serological evidence does not offer any support whatsoever to Hahn and Sharp's thinking. In fact, it runs quite strongly against it. Here is a quick review of the relevant evidence that I have in my files, augmented by information from the excellent HIV/AIDS Surveillance Database, published by the US Bureau of Census. In 1975-8, blood was taken from 340 pygmies (the greatest of all bushmeat hunters) from the borders of Congo Brazzaville and Central African Republic (CAR), who live just 100-150 miles to the north-east of the suspect Cameroonian chimps. Not one of these samples was found to be HIV-1-positive. Further surveys were conducted in CAR in 1986 among 280 members of the general population in Sangha region (which extends to as close as 50 miles from Hahn's chimps). Again, not one positive. Another much larger survey was conducted in 1984-7 among 782 pygmies from Sangha region and Lobaye region (immediately to the east), again without a single HIV-1-positive.[9] This evidence strongly suggests that no HIV-1 derived from the Cameroonian chimp troops ever escaped northwards up the Sangha river, into the south-west of Central African Republic or northern Congo Brazzaville, despite the fact that there appears to be quite a heavy traffic of small boats on that part of the river. If Hahn and Sharp are right in their assumption that this south-eastern corner of Cameroon is the source of pandemic HIV-1, then these wholly negative findings are, to say the least, surprising.The Hollywooding of Science: "The available serological evidence does not offer any support whatsoever to Hahn and Sharp's thinking. In fact, it runs quite strongly against it..."



ROC: Isolated Sangha region falls off the map

September 06 article by IRIN/OCHA spotlighting hard-to-reach Sangha Department of the Republic of Congo. Although this does not specifically mention indigenous peoples, Sangha and Likouala are the two departments of the Republic of Congo with the greatest populations of indigenous peoples. The article explores the link between accessibility and health, but one thing to also consider is that roads which improve access also increase pressure on forest resources and traditional forest-centered peoples.



Gorillas and human health

Excerpt from WCS website: "...In Central Africa, humans and gorillas share not only their land but also more than 140 diseases. The impact of these pathogens can be devastating if not monitored, managed, and most importantly- prevented. Both humans and gorillas suffer terribly from rare diseases such as Ebola hemorrhagic fever, as well as easily preventable but deadly infections such as polio and measles. People living in rural areas of central Africa are plagued by the lack of the most basic health care. These rural peoples live on the fringes, the exact same areas that still hold the world's richest biodiversity. While conservation efforts in these areas offer the hope of well-managed natural resources as well as revenue streams through ecotourism, the lives of local people will not significantly improve if steps are not taken to improve their health. Living in remote areas, far from capital cities, these people have been left off of the map of developing country health care programs. Simultaneously, humans pose the greatest disease threats to great apes. Human tuberculosis causes a rapidly fatal disease in primates. Measles and influenza infect apes with deadly effects. In contrast to the safety of using injectable polio vaccine, the shedding of virus following oral polio vaccines can cause deadly infections in wild apes that come in contact with water or soil contaminated by recently vaccinated people. Ironically, one of the biggest threats to ecotourism's significant revenue potential for local people and protected areas is disease spread by local people, their domestic animals, and even tourists. These diseases can devastate the wildlife resources upon which tourism is based, and other animals upon which local people depend for food..."



HIV type 1 infection in Pygmy hunter gatherers is from contact with Bantu

Excerpt from PubMed abstract: "...To investigate the route of zoonotic transmission of HIV-1, we isolated three and seven HIV-1 strains from 449 Pygmy hunter gatherers and 169 neighboring Bantu, respectively, in southern Cameroon. Phylogenetic analysis based on pol-integrase and env-C2V3 sequences revealed that strains from Pygmies were 1CRF02_AG/CRF02_AG, 1 subtype G/CRF02 AG (pol/env), and 1 CRFll_cpx/CRF11_cpx, and that those from Bantu were 2 CRF02_AG/CRF02_AG, 1 CRF02_AG/CRF01_AE/A, 1 CRF02_AG/subtype A, 1 G/A, 1G/CRF02_AG, and 1 unclassified fH. CRF02_AG and CRF11_cpx have been identified in Cameroon. The results suggest that HIV-1 has been introduced into Pygmies through their neighboring Bantu rather than directly from nonhuman primates..."


Metabolic Studies in the African Pygmy

Excerpt from PubMed/Journal of Clinical Investigation Abstract: "...Major metabolic effects of human growth hormone (HGH) were assessed in the African Babinga pygmy. Plasma free fatty acid (FFA) and glucose concentrations were measured in pygmies, HGH-deficient dwarfs, Bantu tribesmen, and Caucasian controls after each received 4 mg of HGH intravenously over a 20 min period. Pygmies had an early decrease of plasma FFA and glucose concentration, but did not exhibit a later lipolytic response...In neighboring Bantu tribesmen, American controls, and HGH-deficient dwarfs, both the early and late responses to intravenous HGH were present. The failure of plasma FFA concentration to increase in the pygmy after intravenous HGH was not due to a generalized defect in lipolysis since a normal lipolytic response was obtained with epinephrine (2 μg/min for 20 min)..."


Filovirus activity among selected ethnic groups inhabiting the tropical forest of equatorial Africa

Excerpt from PubMed Abstract: "...Seroepidemiological surveys were conducted to determine the frequency and distribution of filovirus activity among selected ethnic groups inhabiting the tropical forests of the Central African Republic. 427 serum specimens were collected from hunter-gatherers and subsistence farmers living in forest environs in the Lobaye District south of the river Lobaye and west of the river Oubangui. Striking serological evidence for filovirus activity was found in both populations. Ebola virus appears to be the most active filovirus; 17.6% (75/427) of the Lobaye survey population were seropositive for Ebola virus reactive antibody while 1.2% (5/427) were seroreactive with Marburg viral antigens. Ethnic background appeared to be an important risk factor influencing filovirus exposure in the forest communities. The filovirus antibody prevalence among 21-40 years old male Aka Pygmy hunter-gatherers was significantly (P = 0.03) 3 times higher (37.5%) than that in similarly aged male Monzombo and Mbati subsistence farmers (13.2%). Continued epidemiological investigations are needed to define ethnic-related events influencing human filovirus activity in the Congo basin of equatorial Africa..."


Health Situation of Women and Children in Central African Pygmy Peoples

*Essential non-technical reference


ROC: USAID Country Health Statistical Report

Although no express reference to indigenous peoples, a general source of health statistics in the Republic of Congo. To the extent it is current (June 2005), it is identified as a general resource for those actors in the health sector.


An immunisation coverage survey in the Kouilou area of Congo-Brazzaville

Does not address indigenous populations specifically, but touches on issue of dropout rates, and difference between urban and rural area possession of vaccination cards (90-96% in urban zones v. 55% in rural zones). One can expect that coverage will be much lower in indigenous populations (who in this area are Babongo peoples), especially to the extent that the health of hard-to-reach poplulations remains unmonitored.


ROC: Survey Summary for Congo-Brazzaville

2005 DHS health survey for Congo-Brazzaville includes: AIDS Behavior; AIDS Knowledge – Questions assess knowledge/sources of knowledge/ways to avoid AIDS; Anemia – Questions or testing assessing prevelence/severity of iron-def. anemia among women or children; Anthropometry; Birth registration; Iodine; Malaria; Maternal Mortality; Men's Survey; Micronutrients; Vitamin A


ROC: Displaced pygmies from Pool region vaccinated against polio

Excerpt from UNICEF website (2002): "...'How many of your children have been vaccinated against polio?' asks Isabelle Mouyokani of UNICEF-Brazzaville, to Chief Malima. “Last year, the children were vaccinated and some of the children were vaccinated again yesterday” says Malima who speaks Teke, but not French, Congo’s national language. “But others were not here so they need to be vaccinated today.” “Okay, that’s fine – today we’ll vaccinate all the children who weren’t vaccinated yesterday. But, first of all, who knows what polio is and how to prevent it?”, asks Isabelle in French. After the translation is made into Teke, there is a shuffling from behind the group. An elderly woman comes forward, carrying her grandson. He is about six years old and he holds her tightly around the neck – both of his bone-thin legs dangle below him, providing no support.
“This is my grandson, Malonga. I think he has the disease you’re talking about”, she says. “We had to take turns carrying him all the way from Nko because he’s never been able to walk.” “Yes, he does … he does have polio”, says Isabelle. “This is what can happen to your children if they don’t take the polio vaccine. All your children under 5 years of age must be vaccinated against polio. They must also be vaccinated two more times – one month from now and one month after that. The vaccine is free, it is not harmful and it will prevent your children from becoming crippled...”



Compilation of Abstracts on HIV/AIDS initiatives

A collection of over fifty abstracts of case studies, lessons learned and best practices from HIV/AIDS initiatives around the world. Includes programs for "hard-to-reach" and extremely vulnerable populations. A good source for developing ideas and creative program approaches.


Health of indigenous people in Africa

*Essential, authoritative reference for the health sector. Excerpt on child mortality: Mortality rates in Pygmy communities are high...Infant mortality rates in forest-dwelling Aka in the Central African Republic during the 1980s, and former forest-dwelling Twa in Uganda at the turn of this century, are reported as 20–22% and 20–21%, respectively...These rates are more than twice the national infant mortality rates (9·8% and 9·7%, respectively) cited by the World Bank in 2000; and in the Ugandan study are 1·5–4 times higher than nearby non-Twa com munities. For children younger than 5 years, mortality rates of 27% reported in forest-dwelling Mbendjele in northern Congo in the mid-1990s were 1·5 times higher than neighbouring Bantu...In the study of Ugandan Twa, mortality rates for children younger than 5 years (40%) were 1·8–2·4 times higher than in non-Twa villages. Loss of a forest-based life can be associated with increased mortality..."


Bushmeat and foodsecurity

Excerpt from Cambridge Journal Abstract: "...Tropical moist forests in Africa are concentrated in the Congo Basin. A variety of animals in these forests, in particular mammals, are hunted for their meat, termed bushmeat. This paper investigates current and future trends of bushmeat protein, and non-bushmeat protein supply, for inhabitants of the main Congo Basin countries. Since most bushmeat is derived from forest mammals, published extraction (E) and production (P) estimates of mammal populations were used to calculate the per person protein supplied by these. Current bushmeat protein supply may range from 30 g person per day in the Democratic Republic of Congo, to 180 g person per person in Gabon. Future bushmeat protein supplies were predicted for the next 50 years by employing current E:P ratios, and controlling for known deforestation and population growth rates. At current exploitation rates, bushmeat protein supply would drop 81% in all countries in less than 50 years; only three countries would be able to maintain a protein supply above the recommended daily requirement of 52 g person[minus sign]1 day[minus sign]1. However, if bushmeat harvests were reduced to a sustainable level, all countries except Gabon would be dramatically affected by the loss of wild protein supply. The dependence on bushmeat protein is emphasized by the fact that four out of the five countries studied do not produce sufficient amounts of non-bushmeat protein to feed their populations. These findings imply that a significant number of forest mammals could become extinct relatively soon, and that protein malnutrition is likely to increase dramatically if food security in the region is not promptly resolved..."



CAR: HIV/AIDS and STD prevention

Excerpt: "...The United Nations Volunteers programme (UNV) has financed a training programme, undertaken by an NGO in the Central African Republic (CAR), to sensitise the Batwa, or pygmies, on protection against HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases..."


ROC: La marginalisation du nord et la domination des pygmees par les grands noirs sont responsables de la persistance de l'endemie pianique

Excerpt: "...Nous avons vu dans la Partie I les raisons médicales et techniques de la persistance du pian chez les Pygmées. Nous allons essayer de montrer dans cette Partie que le manque de volonté politique de rétablir un équilibre dans le schéma d’organisation sanitaire territorial est le reflet d’un déséquilibre atteignant les niveaux sociaux, économiques et culturels entre le Nord et le Sud du pays, inscrit dans la longue durée historique et l’immédiateté événementielle (le déplacement des intérêts économiques vers la côte atlantique pourrait être à l’origine d’un nouvel aménagement du territoire favorisant Pointe-Noire. Actuellement, et c’est peut être prémonitoire, les seules formations sanitaires qui fonctionnent sont celles des compagnies pétrolières. Les soins sont réservés aux expatriés, comme l’étaient les hôpitaux, aux plus beaux jours de la colonisation)....Nous verrons également que la persistance du pian chez les Pygmées est le témoin d’une discrimination plus globale de ces populations dont l’intérêt économique est déjà incontestable pour les villageois, à qui leur force de travail est devenue indispensable. Travailler pour les villageois ne donne malheureusement aucun droit aux Pygmées...La description des coutumes anciennes des différents peuples de la région n’est pas sans intérêt non plus sur le plan médical (conception des maladies, traitements traditionnels) car, derrière la fiction de la modernité, beaucoup de ces coutumes se maintiennent, que se soient les pratiques (pêche, agriculture, piégeage…), les croyances (et leur rôle dans les parcours thérapeutiques), ou les divisions familiales du travail. Ainsi, la faillite économique de la région a fait retomber le poids des contraintes alimentaires sur les éléments les plus faibles, les femmes, et faute de bras, du fait de l’exode rural, les Pygmées..."



Consultation on national profiles on the status of children's environmental health in the African region of WHO (World Health Organization)

Statitics? Data? Outcomes? Follow-up? Excerpt: "...No less than one-third of the global burden of ill health is attributed to factors in the environment and this proportion is several times greater in Africa than in any other region. Children bear a disproportionate share of this burden of ill health and death, due to their innate vulnerability to environmental exposures. Even among children, certain groups are at increased risks, bearing the brunt of the problem – the marginalized, underserved, those who belong to the minority group and the poor...This Consultation was organized by WHO Regional office for Africa in order to share the results of these National Profiles, assess Regional needs concerning children’s environment and health concerns and propose concrete actions. More so, it was hoped to help to foster greater understanding of children’s environmental health threats among countries and partners within the region and to provide a platform to map out priorities, build consensus and create partnerships/networks on concrete actions to improve the environmental health of children. In addition, three other countries prepared reports on children, with a focus on ethnic minority groups. Development of the profiles involved input from several ministries, sectors and individuals. Countries presented key facts about mortality, morbidity, environmental conditions, legislative support, accessibility of information, and communications vehicles... HIGH RISK/VULNERABLE GROUPS: Information on high risks/vulnerable groups and demographic profile of countries - To what extent are environment and health statistics or any other statistics routinely desegregated by socio-economic status, ethnicity? Provide the approximate numbers or percentages of each ethnic population and the geographic areas they occupy. Are major research or other institutions carrying any relevant work in the
area? To what extent do national environmental or other sectoral policies make
specific reference to ethnic groups? Is there any evidence of the impact of ethnicity, socio-economic status on the burden of disease related to environmental threats (disease distribution and prevalence)? Are there any activities on the vulnerable groups, ethnic minorities undertaken by international institutions or Non-governmental Organizations to which an environment and health component might be added?..."


HIV/AIDS Awareness in the Republic of Congo

Excerpt: "...Souvent victime de discrimination dans un pays où elle est minoritaire, la communauté pygmée du Congo s’inquiète de voir ses membres de plus en plus touchés par le VIH/SIDA tandis que leur accès à l’information, à la prévention et aux soins reste très limité...«Les autorités doivent penser à nous», a plaidé Ernest Mounguengué Moundiongi, un membre de la communauté pygmée venu du département de la Lékoumou dans le sud du pays. «Nous écoutons la radio, nous savons qu’il se fait beaucoup de choses dans la lutte contre le VIH mais pas grand chose à l’endroit de nos communautés alors que les gens sont pour la plupart ignorants.»..."



Episcopal Medical Missions in Uganda

*Child Survival survey in Uganda



Global Summit on HIV/AIDS & Traditional Knowledge



Ebola and Marburg virus antibody prevalence in Pygmie Aka and Non-Pygmie Populations


Psychology: Trends in Africa


HIV-AIDS: Pygmies seek education on condom use in CAR


La maladie du pian fait des ravages chez les Pygmées de la Likouala et de la Sangha


VIH: Sérums de Pygmées et Bantous dans les régions de la Likouala et de la Sangha

*Recommended reference, HIV/Republic of Congo


La marginalisation sanitaire des ilots Pygmees de la Likouala (ROC)

*Recommended reference, inc. map of locations of indigenous peoples of Central Africa


La lutte contre les grandes endemies des populations equatoriales: L'exemple du Pian chez les Pygmees du Nord-Congo



A comparative study of HIV/AIDS risk factors of syphilis and HIV infection prevalence among a Pygmie population and neighboring Bantus in S. Cameroon


A survey on knowledge, attitudes and practices on HIV/AIDS among a Pygmy population and it neighboring Bantus

*Recommended reference for humanitarian field practitioners


Molecular Epidemiology of Human Polyomavirus JC in the Biaka Pygmies and Bantu of Central Africa


Infections among pygmies in the Eastern Province of Cameroon


Race-specific HIV-1 disease-modifying effects associated with CCR5 haplotypes


The newborn pygmie and his mother: Promotion of Maternal and Child Health


Abstract: Nutritional status of Efe pygmies and Lese horticulturists


Dental Health, Diet and Social Status among Central African foragers and farmers


DRC: Sexual violence and lack of healthcare spreads HIV/AIDS among pygmies


Batoa Pygmies health initiative in Pendjua, DRC


Child survival statistics for Batwa Pygmies of Uganda


Cardiovascular disease in African Pygmies: A survey of the health status, serum lipids and diet of Pygmies in Congo


IFMSA Cameroon Rural Health Project

IFMSA-USA: Advancing Global Health Through International Collaboration


Health Situation of Women and Children in Central African Pygmy Peoples

*Recommended reference


Batwa Pygmies rally at Buhoma Community Health Centre, Uganda



DRC: Lack of Healthcare Spreads HIV/AIDS Among Pygmies


Polio: Health workers collaborate to develop innovative strategies to reach remote groups of people, such as forest-dwelling Pygmies in Uganda


Chad Export Project: Proposed health and community intervention among Bakola Pygmies


A study of yaws among pygmies in Cameroon and Zaire by Pampiglione and Wilkinson


Republic of Congo: Some 3,000 Babenga threatened by bush yaws

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